### Ball Speed

Is the balls initial velocity - a result of the energy transfer from club to ball. All other things being equal, a higher ball speed translates into more distance. For any given club speed, the ball speed will be highest with impact position at club center of gravity.

### Launch Angle

Is the ball’s initial launch angle relative to the horizon. The optimal launch angle for a driver is individual for each player. A combination of high launch angle and low spin rate is desirable.

### Launch Direction

Describes whether the ball starts right or left of the target line. To hit the ball straight it’s very important to start the ball on line. A launch direction within 1 degree (right or left) corresponds to starting the ball down the target line. Get it as close to 0 degrees as possible.

### Spin Rate

Keeps the ball airborn. Each shot needs a certain amount of launch spin in relation to ball speed, launch angle and purpose of the shot. Too much spin and the ball stalls and lands more steeply, too little spin and there is not enough lift to keep the ball in the air -it lands shallower.

### Max Height

Is the apex point of the ball flight. The apex point will depend on ball speed, the launch angle and spin rate. Note that top players tend to apex shots with all their clubs, from PW to Driver, at the same height.

### Spin Axis

Is the axis around which the ball is spinning. The tilt of the axis indicates if the ball will draw (L) or fade (R). Having a spin axis within 2 degrees (right or left) will result in a straight shot i.e. slight, draw or fade.

### Landing Angle

Is measured relative to ground level. Lower spin rates generally result in a shallower landing angle and more roll. Higher spin rates result in a steeper landing angle and less roll. Keep the landing angle below 40 degrees for a driver and between 45-55 degrees for control on irons.

### Carry

Is the measurement of how far the ball travels in the air. Top players understand exactly how far they carry each club in their bag. To become a better player, you have to know precisely how far each club in your bag goes in the air, and the total distance tendencies.

### Carry Side

Measures the point where the ball lands relative to the target line (right or left). Learning about your tendencies can improve your strategy on the golf course, or even reveal equipment issues (lie angle, shaft flex, etc.).

### Total Distance

Equals measured carry distance plus calculated bounce and roll. The bounce and roll model depends on landing angle, spin rate and landing speed.

### Total Side

Is calculated as the point where the ball ends relative to the target line (right or left). The bounce and roll model depends on landing angle, spin rate and landing speed.

### Distance to Pin

Equals the measured distance from the ball (final rest position) to the target pin.